The genus Cannabis, commonly classified into the species Cannabis Indica, Cannabis Sativa L. and Cannabis ruderalis, has been an important crop throughout all human history for food, fiber, and medicine purposes since ancient times.
Viewed as the most eco-friendly and highly sustainable crop, hemp now is surrounded of renewal interest for its multi-purpose applications.
Recent technological advances and ongoing international research on its potential therapeutic efficacy, have finally highlighted the countless possible uses of any part of the plant, as new ecological and natural source of innovative materials suitable for any kind of use.
The use of hemp fiber to include the production of carbon nanosheets,plastics,3D printer filaments, oil absorbent materials and construction concrete. The use of hemp fiber to include the production of carbon nanosheets,plastics,3D printer filaments, oil absorbent materials and construction concrete.
Multipurpose hemp for industrial bioproducts and biomass, processing techniques to produce high-quality composites, insulation materials made of renewable resources as an alternative material to synthetic thermal insulation materials and they exhibit low energy consumption during the production, consume a minimum of resources and producing a minimum or hardly any industrial waste if compared to materials like mineral fibrous insulating and foam plastics (Murphy et al. 1999).
Additionally, hemp produces over 100 known cannabinoids, most notably CBD. Clinical trials are pushing this plant investigating CBD and other cannabinoids for treatment of 26 medical conditions. Furthermore, CBD has been granted orphan drug status for eleven conditions.
Cannabinoids represent the most studied group of compounds, thanks to their wide range of therapeutic and healthy benefits and to the versatile nature of the hemp plant.
Cannabinoids, terpenes and other molecules not yet fully scientifically studied or discovered can play an important role in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industry giving a new role to hemp plant in both sectors. Genetic modification could enable industrial-scale production of cannabinoids that have pharmaceutical potential.
Hemp has a wide range of benefits on human health, is a raw material environmental friendly alternative compared to polluting industrial raw materials, new hemp product categories and sectors are growing everywhere in the world, creating notable advantages to industry, end consumer and the society.
Terpenes are small, volatile chemical agents used by the cannabis plant for a multitude of reasons. They have individual aromatic profile along with several proved healthy effects.
Pinene is a bronchodilator and has analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant effects.
Linalool has a floral scent with spicy overtones and has analgesic, antidepressant, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-psychotic, anxiolytic, and sedative effects.
Myrcene has earthy, fruity notes and analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-insomnia, anti-proliferative/ant-mutagenic, anti psychotic, and antispasmodic effects.
Limonene has a strong citrus odor. It has antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anxiolytic, gasto-pesphageal reflux (reduces acid reflux), immunostimulant effects.
Caryophyllene has analgesic, antibacterial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, antioxidant, anxiolitic, analgesic, and neuroprotective effects.